source: Beck, Kent. Extreme Programming Explained, 2e.
This card lists programmer practices, both team and individual (or pair!), that can help us meet some of the rather daunting challenges of agile: How do we continually deliver increments of quality software that meet the changing and evolving needs of our customer, at a reasonable cost?
- Continuous integration (CI) - Agile promotes continual forward progress. We expect programmers to frequently update the system with code changes, so that we can verify that the complete, integrated system is still working.
- Test driven development (TDD) - TDD tells us to break down programming into technical tasks, each specified by tests that document small pieces of behavior. TDD provides us with feedback that we've built code that does what the tests specify. Most importantly, TDD supports the practice of design improvement.
- Design improvement - With each change, programmers must reflect upon the code's new state, and correct any design deficiencies. Continual holistic attention to the system's design helps keep development costs from rising dramatically.
- Coding standard - Navigating a code base without standards is like riding on a rough road: At the end of the day, the constant battle against all the little bumps, nuisances, and noise simply wears you down. A team that can't establish workable standards is a weak team. In addition to including naming and formatting, coding standards should include things like handling of build system warnings, build output standards (e.g. no stdout/stderr or stack dumps!), build timing standards, and test standards.
- Collective code ownership - Uncle Bob's prime directive for agile development is "never be blocked." Class ownership standards create unnecessary blocking issues. We should all be comfortable with anyone touching any area of the code--as long as they're following all of these other programmer practices!
- Simple design - Keeping the design as simple as possible allows for easier incorporation of new changes. Introducing unnecessary abstractions or complexities increases the cost of development. You ain't gonna need it! (YAGNI) More specifically, the practice of simple design is best described by Kent Beck's four rules.
- System metaphor - A global understanding of the system and its concepts is essential for an agile team. We all need to build a common, ubiquitous language that helps us communicate with each other, and that includes non-programmers. The system metaphor is a system of names for its primary entities (classes) and how they relate.
- Pair programming - How in the world will your team ensure that other developers are adhering to the common practices if no one reviews what is done? How will we ensure that we keep on track, and developer on time, if developers are left to suffer their own insecurities in their cubes? How can we shift from finding bugs to preventing them? Try it. If you have a real team, you'll like it.
Hmm, this card looks suspiciously like the technical practices of XP. How about that!